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Ecología en Acción - Biodigestores
Septiembre 22 2014 03:10:18
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MANOS A LA TIERRA
SIEMBRA CONCIENCIA POR LA TIERRA Y PARA LA TIERRA REFORESTACION 2009
APASDEM
Organi-k pertenece a... ASOCIACIONES PROTECTORAS DE ANIMALES DE MÉXICO
RED DE ECOALDEAS DE MÉXICO
AZOTEAS VERDES
CENTRO CULTURAL LA PIRÁMIDE
Nuestra casa
ANIMALES
APASDEM
Organi-k se vincula a CENTRO DE ENLACES
Biodigestores
BIOGESTORES

¿Qué es?

Un Biodigestor es básicamente un cilindro o contenedor sellado, hecho de ferro-cemento, plástico o de tubería PVC por donde entran las aguas negras provenientes del estiércol, desperdicios de comida y rastrojos de siembra, de las cuales se produce gas metano. Este gas se puede utilizar para cocinar o para el alumbrado domiciliar.
¿Cómo funciona?

Debido a la ausencia de oxígeno, las bacterias anaerobias se multiplican y procesan la materia orgánica produciendo así gas metano.  Cuando se inicia la producción de gas metano, la fosa debe de ser cargada con 30 quintales de estiércol y 500 galones de agua. Diariamente se le deben de cargar de 4.54 a 5.44 kilos de estiércol. Los excrementos permanecen en  condiciones anaerobias por un período de 25 a 40 días. Cuando salen del biodigestor, el agua se pasa por un humedal artificial que contiene plantas tales como la chuspata, platanillo o papiro, mismas que absorben su contenido en nutrientes. Cada día el biodigestor produce alrededor de 11.3398 Kg.  de gas metano, cantidad suficiente para cocinar alrededor de ocho horas. Se pueden construir biodigestores multifamiliares para satisfacer a  un grupo o comunidad de vecinos.

Tipos:

Hay muchas variaciones de biodigestores. Hay modelos que producen gas metano para uso doméstico, añadiendo el estiércol y excremento de los animales domésticos, especialmente de puercos y vacas. También existen biodigestores para granjas grandes en donde se procesa el excremento de vacas y puercos en donde el líquido resultante se puede vender como un fertilizante orgánico de alta calidad.

Las variaciones en el diseño de biodigestores pueden ser las siguientes:

Digestores de flujo continuo: reciben su carga de una bomba que mantiene una corriente continua.

Digestores de flujo semi-continuo: diariamente reciben una carga fija.

Digestores estacionarios: se cargan una sola vez y después de un tiempo de retención se vacían completamente.

Existen diferentes tipos de digestores según el flujo de agua interna.

Flujo Horizontal o Tubular: Con forma de cilindro, se carga por un extremo y la carga diaria se va desplazando por su interior.

El sistema más común en México para la producción de biofertilizante y tratamiento de excretas animales es el tubular u horizontal semi-continuo. Pueden ser de dos tipos: De ferro-cemento y de plástico. Los digestores tubulares pueden tener una campana integrada o un recipiente adicional de captación.Los Los Los digestores de flujo ascendente son los indicados para la producción de biogás, en donde la campana de captación flota en la parte superior del líquido. Se recomienda utilizar filtros de fibra metálica o medios alcalinos para despojar el biogás de su carga ácida antes de ser utilizado.

El biofertilizante resultante, para poder ser utilizado para riego, debe de ser diluido en relación 10-1 o en forma foliar en donde se agrega algún fijador como el jabón.

Beneficios sociales y para el medio ambiente:

Los biodigestores presentan los siguientes beneficios a la sociedad:

Genera un gas combustible (biogás) que se aprovecha en cocción de alimentos, calefacción de lechones y aves, combustible en el funcionamiento de motores.

Ahorro de energía.

Reduce la generación de olores ofensivos, desagradables.

Su manejo es sencillo y no requiere mantenimiento sofisticado requiriendo una mínima área.

Mejora la salud y la ecología de las comunidades rurales al evitar el uso de leña para cocinar.
 
Reduce el uso de costosos y contaminantes fertilizantes químicos.

Al disponer adecuadamente del estiércol de los animales se minimizan los riesgos a la salud. Su costo de montaje es relativamente bajo y la inversión se recupera rápidamente con la venta o aprovechamiento de sub-producto.


Los beneficios para el medio ambiente:

Disminuye la carga contaminante del vertimiento con una reducción de 60 a 80% de materia orgánica, dependiendo del tiempo de retención.
Mejora la capacidad fertilizante del efluente final para abono de potreros.

Evita la tala de árboles de uso doméstico en la producción de fuego para cocción de alimentos.

Minimiza la contaminación del ambiente. Promueve la conservación de áreas naturales y bosques.

Reducción de emisiones de gases invernadero (CO2 y metano) que contribuyen al calentamiento global.
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