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Ecología en Acción - captación de agua de lluvia
Septiembre 17 2014 18:34:46
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MANOS A LA TIERRA
SIEMBRA CONCIENCIA POR LA TIERRA Y PARA LA TIERRA REFORESTACION 2009
APASDEM
Organi-k pertenece a... ASOCIACIONES PROTECTORAS DE ANIMALES DE MÉXICO
RED DE ECOALDEAS DE MÉXICO
AZOTEAS VERDES
CENTRO CULTURAL LA PIRÁMIDE
Nuestra casa
ANIMALES
APASDEM
Organi-k se vincula a CENTRO DE ENLACES
captación de agua de lluvia
SISTEMA DE CAPTACION PLUVIAL

¿Qué es?

 La captación de agua de lluvia es un sistema ancestral que ha sido practicado en diferentes épocas y culturas. Este sistema es un medio fácil y sensato de obtener agua para el consumo humano y para el uso agrícola. En aquellos lugares del mundo con alta o media precipitación y en donde no se cuenta con la suficiente cantidad y calidad de agua para consumo humano, se puede recurrir al agua de lluvia como fuente de abastecimiento.

El agua de lluvia puede ser interceptada, colectada y almacenada en depósitos especiales para su uso posterior. Esto haría posible el hacer más llevadero el tiempo de secas y en un futuro sobrevivir las secas, ya que por el mal uso del agua y por factores tales como la deforestación masiva en el planeta, el agua ira escaseando progresivamente lo cual significa que en un futuro no muy lejano, el sistema de captación de agua de lluvia será un mecanismo de sobrevivencia.

Factores que se deben tomar en cuenta  en un sistema de captación de aguas pluviales:

  *Precipitación media por año

  *Precipitación mínima por año
 
  *Precipitación máxima por día
 
  *Consumo diario

  *Superficies recolectoras
 
  *Superficie de riego disponible
 
  *Consistencia del suelo

  *Existencia de drenaje pluvial

  *Espacio para el almacenamiento

¿Qué tipos de sistemas de captación pluvial existen y como funcionan?

En el contexto doméstico, para la captación de lluvia, se puede utilizar la superficie del techo como captación. A este sistema se le conoce como el modelo SCAPT (Sistema de captación pluvial en techos). La ventaja de este sistema es que además de su captación, minimiza la contaminación del agua.


                                                                           


Para uso agrícola, se requieren de mayores superficies de captación, por lo que se requiere de superficies permeables extensas, para colectar la mayor cantidad de agua posible.

Características funcionales:

La cosecha de agua se determina por la superficie captadora. Entre mayor sea la superficie mayor será la captación pluvial.  Por lo general se utiliza la azotea de una casa.

Las tuberías utilizadas para el desalojo de agua pluvial pueden ser utilizadas para los sistemas de captación y almacenamiento de agua de lluvia.

El filtro es el componente más importante en un sistema de captación pluvial. Dicho filtro debe de tener a capacidad de retener las partículas orgánicas y minerales encontradas en la superficie captadora y en la lluvia. Su funcionamiento debe de ser auto-purgante para no requerir de mayor mantenimiento y limpieza.

La cisterna, aunque similar a una cisterna de agua potable tiene las siguientes diferencias constructivas:

  1.Cuando no hay suficiente precipitación, debe de recibir agua de la cisterna de agua potable.

  2.Debe de tener una salida de seguridad que permita filtrar a la canalización o a una superficie libre el exceso de agua.

  3.La superficie flotante debe de estar debajo de una malla para evitar la succión de sedimentos y partículas.
El tamaño de la cisterna se calcula basándose en datos estadísticos de precipitación pluvial, dimensión de superficie captadora y la cantidad requerida de agua para la vivienda o edificación.

Para el sistema de bombeo se pude aplicar un sistema hidroneumático y/o un tinaco. También es posible instalar bombas mecánicas y/o de tracción.

La tubería de distribución no difiere de un sistema tradicional y puede ser instalada por un plomero.

Ventajas sociales y Ambientales:

Alta calidad físico-química del agua de lluvia.

Ideal para comunidades dispersas o alejadas debido a que es un sistema independiente.

Empleo de mano de obra.

Materiales locales.

El sistema no requiere de energía para su operación.

De fácil mantenimiento.

Comodidad y ahorro de tiempo en la recolección del agua de lluvia.

Conservación de los recursos acuíferos.

Evita la saturación de sistemas de tubería en las ciudades.

Comentarios
#1 | elizavl el abril 26 2009 18:44:44
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hola! me interesa mucho instalar un sistema de captación de lluvia y paneles solares, ustedes proporcionan esos servicios o conocen a alguna empresa o persona que lo pueda hacer?? Gracias!
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